SchooIdays - Memories and History
                     Pre 20th. Century



NOTHING is a greater help to a realisation of the area of the town, than recalling the quarters chosen as their residences by the few professional men it boasted. Not until the latter end of the century, when we have Directories to help us, are we able to do this; for many of them, especially of the doctors, are a name and nothing more. The lawyers, thanks to old deeds and instruments, are easier of identification, though we cannot always localise their habit~ts. Among the earliest of the medical men* is Dr. Thomas Morton, of the Spout House family, who died young in I675. John Fisher, son of the Vicar evi~ted from the Sheffield Parish Church in I662, and brother of Mrs. Timothy Jollie, senior, was a surgeon here; and the date of his death, I685-6, makes it possible that he may have been the John Fisher repeatedly mentioned in the Burgery accounts as renting rooms in the old Workhouse, part of which, being larger than required by the Overseers, was let off in tenements.+ Another Vicar, the Rev. Nathan Drake (I695-I7I3), also gave to the town a doctor in the person of his son, Robert Drake. He married a daughter of Christopher Broomhead (Master Cutler in I696, and Church Burgess, I729).# Mr. Drake died at the early age of 33, in I723. Of a certain Joseph Pearson (buried T698), of Thomas Stacye (will dated I7I6), and Andrew Sayles (died I7I2), and Richard Handley (I680-I69I) we have no records, though they ---------------- #From the fact that when Mr. Robert Browne one of the Lord's Commissioners was fatally ill at the Manor or the Castle (1639), one Dr. Rooe came from Doncaster accompanied by his apothecary to attend him Mr. Hunter concludes that there was then no physician residing in Sheffield. (Hallamshire, p 32.) And in I643 Sir William Savile writing to the Deputy Governor of Sheffield Castle says that if he has not provided himself with a chirurgeon " there is one at Barnesley that will searve your turne." Ib. 138. + See post, Chapter XV. # See post, Chapter XIII. ------------------ all bear well-known local names. Timothy Heywood, apothe- cary, grandson of the famous Yorkshire Nonconformist, Oliver Heywood, died young in I7I8, six days after his marriage, his widow subsequently becoming the wife of William Marsden, an attorney here. John Buck comes dramatically before us as the "chirugeon of Sheffield" whom Sir John Reresby (I676) " caused to be prosecuted for having two wives," and who was active in imputing to Reresby foul play in connection with the death of a Moorish servant.* He died in I723, and the Parish Register records the marriage, November 26,I730, of Joseph Hoyland, ironmaster, and Elizabeth Buck, widow. Of William Lyon, all we know is that he was married, in I72I, to Ann Bean; that he was one of the original shareholders in the River Dun Navigation Company (I730); and that he was engaged in I736 in a lead mining speculation at Bradfield with Thomas Cawthorne, the upholsterer, of Angel Street, and Westby Hatfield, linen draper. As Hatfield became so much reduced in circumstances that he was at the time of his death (I78I) master of the Boys' Charity School, we may conclude that lead mines were capable then, as in later days, of swallowing fortunes. Dr. Robert Lee (baptised I687) was the son of George Lee, an attorney; brother of the Rev. George Lee, assistant minister of the Parish Church, I708-I7I9; and nephew of Jonathan Lee, of Little Sheffield, who married a daughter of Malin Sorsby, and was a Church Burgess in I7I3, and one of the pioneers in the establishment of waterworks here. Dr. John Waterhouse, one of the Waterhouses of High Street,+ a Church Burgess, died in I7I4. He bequeathed I5S. per annum for a sermon to be preached every 30tll of January, the date of his first wife's interment in I708. Dr. John Browne was appointed " apotllecary for the poor of the township " in I753, at a salary of £20 a year; and the Workllouse accounts contain the following entry, under date May 24, I754: "Agreed that the officers present do present Dr. John Browne with a guinea, for his extraordinary care and attendance upon the wife of Edmund Rawood, over and above his salary and -------------- * See ante, p. IOn. + See post, Chapter XIII. -------------- bill." The name of Mr. Dennis Browne (died I767), like that of his more celebrated nephew, Dr. Thomas Browne,* who for many years was the leading man in all public affairs, is more closely connected with the Lead Works, adjoining which he lived, than with the practise of his profession. His grandniece was the wife of Vicar Sutton. Dr. James, whose fever powders were once almost popular in our nurseries, through favourable comparison with the more nauseous compounds which made the name of Gregory to be execrated, is said to have made a brief attempt to establish a practice in Sheffield; and Dr. Buchan is reported to have written his well-known " Domestic Medicine" here, when occupying the building in the Hartshead, afterwards famous as the Office of the Regis~eY in Mr. Gales's time, and of the IYis in Montgomery's. There is a story, too, that Dr. Buchan once occupied lodgings in Ball Street, in the then country district of Neepsend, though the tradition as to this lacks precision. The profession was not free from unqualified rivals. Barbers were ready enough to bleed or to pull out teeth. The line drawn between a druggist and a doctor was not very precise, and there were other irregular practitioners. The Parish Register records, in I7I9, the dealth of Thomas Simmons, quack doctor. The earliest mention we meet with of Mr. John Hussey, apothecary, is in I738. The glimpses we get of him indicate that his practice lay among what are called " the first families." Clearly he was the sort of friendly do~tor who is consulted on many matters outside his profession, and whom widows and maiden ladies choose as their executor. He was ever a wel- come guest at Norton House, one of "the jovial debaters," including John Girdler, Hunter's grandfather, and others, who met there round the convivial table of Robert Newton; -I and we find him intimately associated with the Bamforths, the ------------------ * Sheffield Royal Infirmary " by Leader and Snell p. 25, and Gatty's Hunter's Hallamshire, p. 325. + Local Notes and Queries, November 16, 1874; September I6, I875; May 2,I878. ---------------- Younges, and other prominent citizens. He is reputedÑand the frequency with which his name occurs in deeds relating to the conveyance of property confirms thisÑto have been one of the few Sheffield doctors who have become rich. As he died a bachelor, in I773, his wealth went to his brother, David Hussey, of Attercliffe Forge,* the father-in-law of William Burton, another surgeon, of whom more hereafter. Joseph Matthewman, of Crookes Moor water fame, was also David Hussey's son-in-law. Judging by the stories about him, Dr. Thomas Short,+ a somewhat voluminous writer, who settled here about I725, was both eminent and eccentric. He is said to have been a man of quick apprehension and hot temper, coarse and blunt, clinging as tenaciously to the diet as to the accent of his native Scotland. At the porridge parties given to his friends, no spoon or other aid was provided, the guests being expected to rely on nature, and use their lips. He slept over a coal-house to preserve his lungs; he smoked; and he had a Jew's horror of swine's flesh. In I733 he had married a sister of Mr. William Parkin, of Mortomley, and queer stories are told of the manner in which a shrewd cousin managed to get made the heir to the Mortomley estates to the dispossession of Mrs. Short. When Dr. Thomas Younge set up, Dr. Short's practice fell away. So he removed to Rotherham, where he died in not very prosperous circumstances in I772. Sketchley's Directory of I774 gives only seven medical menÑin High Street, Change Alley, Market Place, Snig Hill, Bull Stake, and Castle Street. Three of theseÑJohn Hawksley, Change Alley; Thomas Pidgeon, High Street; and Robert Woffendale, " surgeon, dentist, and druggist, head of Market Place," had disappeared in I787; but the ranks of the remainder had been largely recruited. Mr. John Stans- field, or Stanfield, of whom we know nothing, was still at the -------------------- * David Hussey married Mary Girdler heiress of the eldest son of a family from a younger son of which Mr. Hunter was descended + Gatty's Hunter's Hallamshire, p. 250 n; Local Notes and Queries February 3 I876; Rev. E. Goodwin in Gentleman's Magazine for 1807; Nichol's Literary Anecdotes," vol. I. p. 454; Eastwood's Ecclesfield p. 432. Ante, p. 129. -------------------- top of High Street, on the south side, opposite York Street. Here, too, Mr. John Rutherford was terminating his career, for he died the next year, aged 50. A monument to him was erected in the Upper Chapel. He had some property in Ecclesall Bierlow, as he appears under the name of "Dr. Rutterford" in a I786 poor-rate assessment. He was one of the band of men who, feeling the need for reading facilities, formed the Town Library in I77I, and he was president in I78I. Another High Street doctor, Mr. Andrew Raines, was living near the bottom, below Mulberry Street, in I78I. He had been a subscriber to the Assemblies in I747-48, and to the races in I750. He is called " Saint Andrew Raines " in I765, in the draft of a deed conveying to him, for £I40, three messuages in Redcroft. He married Miss Chamberlaine, a niece of Mr. Clay, of Bridgehouses. Mr. William Staniforth had not removed from Truelove's Gutter (Castle Street) to which he, and his son after him, remained faithful throughout life. But there was already noticeable a tendency on the part of their brother practitioners to drift towards the new and more select neighbourhood of Paradise Square. Mr. William Burton had gone there from Bull Stake, accompanied by his brother Michael, an attorney who had hitherto been in Change Alley. A younger son of the Royds Mill family, William Burton inherited, by surviving his elder brother, the copyhold and freehold estates of Madam Bam- forth, the widow of his maternal uncle. After the death of George Bamforth, the last of his race, by a fall from his horse in I739, his widow married secretly her butler, John Senior.* The alliance, though never acknowledged, the lady remaining Madam Bamforth to the end of her life in I776, was practically confessed in her will. In this, while bequeathing much to her sister, who was made residuary legatee, she left all her leaseholds in Sheffield to " John Senior, of High House, gentlemen," absolutely, and her copyholds at Steel Bank and Fairbarn and freeholds to him for life; after his death to William Burton, her first husband's nephew, surgeon and apothecary. This gave rise to an agreement which is worth ------------------ * See ante, II5. ------------------ mentioning as indicative of the surroundings of the town. Senior desired, it would seem, to use the timber, of the copyhold estate at High House, being part of the Fairbarn tenement, in his occupation, for the repair of his leasehold property, but William Burton objected. The portion referred to is described as " consisting of a certain enclosure called the Park or paddock, fenced in with a good stone wall, proper to keep deer in, and wherein are now seventeen deer, the property of the said John Senior, together with a quantity of hay for their support." So it was agreed that on Burton paying ten guineas a year, and supplying such timber as might be needed, Senior would waive his life interest and his right to fell trees, and hand over to him the Park, containing IO acres and 2 roods, and the deer and the hay. Of the "surgeons and man-midwives" mentioned in the Directory of I774, prominent place should be given to Mr. John Hawksley, of Change Alley, because to his training the Infirmary owed its first three surgeonsÑHugh Cheney, William Staniforth, and Charles Hawksley Webb; the two latter of whom in turn became the mentors of yet another generation of Sheffield doctors. Mr. John Hawksley married a daughter of Leonard W ebster, of the King's Head, and having no children of his own, brought up his sister's son, Charles Hawksley Webb, as his successor. We find Mr. Webb carrying on the practice in Change Alley in I787; afterwards he removed to a house in Church Street, now swallowed up by the Sheffield and Rotherham Bank. He has been described as a stout-built, dapper little man, fond of dress, and riding a good horse.* Among his pupils were Mr. Nelson (who succeeded to his practice) and Mr. France. Old George Stubbin, market gardener in Harvest Lane, was servant to Mr. Webb at the time when he was lecturing to students on surgery, and he always declared that Mr. Wilson Overend and Mr. Henry Jackson were among those who attended, but Mr. Arthur Jackson as positively denied thisÑ and, indeed, an examination of dates makes it improbable, if not impossible. Mr. Webb, besides being a doctor, dabbled ---------------- * There is a portrait of him in Leader and Snell's Sheffield Royal Infirmary . " ----------------- in gardening, as was the custom with many town residents, and farming. He had a suburban garden at Harvest Grove, the end of Harvest Lane, where Mr. Waterhouse afterwards built a house; and he farmed at Parkwood Springs, on land belonging to Parson Bland of Bolsterstone, afterwards sold to a building society. He was a politician, too, entertaining what were then thought to be advanced views; and congenial splrlts such as Dr. Younge, Dr. Ernest, James Montgomery, and Robert Hadfield made his house in Church Street a place for meeting to discuss public events. King George III . once, on hearing the name Sheffield, exclaimed," Ah, Sheffield, Sheffield ! Damned bad place, Sheffield,"and the minor agents of the Crown so fully sympathised with the Royal feelings as to make avoidance of their jealous eyes a necesslty. So when Mr. Webb and his friends were settling the affairs of England and the universe to their liking, the servants were instructed to deny admission to callers on the ground that he was engaged in lecturing to his students. The shortness of Mr. Webb's stature made exceedingly ludicrous a quarrel he once had with the Rev. Alexander Mackenzie, Curate of St. Paul's and Infirmary Chaplain, who happened to be unusually tall. It was the custom in those days for the duties of the medical staff at the Infirmary to be prefaced by prayers, read by the chaplain. Mr. Webb so systematically kept his colleagues and the chaplain waiting, through being late, that at length Mr. Mackenzie took him to task. The peppery little man resented this so warmly that he vowed he would horsewhip the " black-coated scoundrel." A few days afterwards, when about to mount his horse at the door of his house, the doctor, seeing Mr. Mackenzie coming up Church Street, rushed at him, and began to carry his threat into execution. The long clergyman ran for protection into Walker and Eyre's bank, and fled upstairs, pursued by the short doctor, to the no small astonishment of clerks and customers. Mr. Webb, who died in I820, in lodgings at Broomhall Mill, where he had gone for the benefit of his health, was popularly, but erroneously, regarded as the hero of another story. It does him an injustice, for he is known to h'ave been free from any addition to intemperance. But it is worth noting because, like an anecdote hereafter to be told of " Dr. Inkbottle," the fact that it could receive credence when attributed to him, or alternatively to his brother, Parson Webb, who was curate of Dore before the Rev. Frank Parker, shows of what wild freaks professional men and clergy were in those days thought capable. The narrative is that one Webb, vwhether apothecary or parson, having been drinking in the neighbourhood of Intake, lay on the ground helplessly intoxi- cated. Some colliers going to work at a pit near, partly as a practical joke, and partly out of consideration for his safety, picked him up and carried him down the mine with them. After some time the inebriate recovered a measure of con- sciousness, and seeing a number of black figures working in Tartarean gloom, supposed he had died and was in another world. The men gave him ale out of a pitcher, and he remarked that it was much like what he had drunk on his last night on earth. Asked who and what he was, he told them what his name and profession had been in the former state of existence, accommodatingly adding that he was willing there to be anything the gentlemen wished. Mr. William Staniforth, of Truelove's Gutter, had, in his turn, as apprentices, three other Infirmary surgeonsÑhis son, the younger ~William Staniforth, who joined the staff on the retirement of Mr. Cheney in I8I2; Mr. T. Waterhouse, and Mr. S. Gregory. Mr. Staniforth, senior, had the leading practice in Sheffield for many years, his reputation as an operator and an oculist being very great. He introduced into Sheffield inoculation for the cow pox, with vaccine obtained direct from Dr. Jenner. A son of the Rev. Benjamin Naylor, of Upper Chapel, was the first who submitted to the operation, and Mr. Offley Shore, of Meersbrook, early availed himself of this beneficent protection against the fell disease which, in those days, ravaged the kingdom. There is a medallion of Mr. Staniforth at the Infirmary, by E. Law, and that institu- tion possesses an engraving of his son. The elder Staniforth lived to the ripe old age of 83. The son survived him only two years, escaping, as Mr. Hunter quaintly puts it, "much annoyance by an early death"; for he married a lady (Miss Lowrie) who, bringing with her some fortune, held herself superior to the making of pills and the dispensing of physic in plebeian Truelove's GutterÑeven when that homely place was ennobled into Castle StreetÑwith a draper brother-in-law as neighbour. Some injustice has been done to the old draper, father and grandfather of the surgeons, in attributing to him Barbara Wreaks's description in her " Characteristics of some leading inhabitants of Sheffield at the close of the eighteenth century" *: A face unwash'd a head uncomb'd he loves And would as soon draw on steel boots as gloves; for it was John Staniforth, not Samuel, to whom Miss Wreaks applied this quotationÑprobably one of the Staniforths of Attercliffe or Darnall. Samuel Staniforth the second, also a draper, brother of William Staniforth, senior, is depicted by one who knew him as a tall, thin, and sedate old gentleman, wearing a white cravat, full ruffled shirt front, and queue. He was cele- brated as a horticulturist, spending much of his time in the cultivation of flowers and fruits in his garden, a large piece of ground, enclosed with high brick walls, on the Occupation (Grimesthorpe) Road, just above Mr. Bailey's gates at Burn Greave. The garden-house was afterwards a beershopÑthe Gardeners' Arms. Mr. Samuel Staniforth might often be met walking home along the Wicker, slow and stately, with a large bouquet of flowers or a basket of fruit in his hand. Dr. (or, perhaps more correctly, Mr., for he was a surgeon) Hugh Cheney shared with Dr. William Younge a fondness for introducing scraps of Latin in his conversation. Dr. Younge's Latin was not always the most classical, two of his favourite phrases, Alderman William Smith+ tells us, being Matutina ros est ingenii cos (the morning dew is the whetstone of the mind) and Diluculo suvgere saluberrimum est (early rising is most favourable to health)Ñmottoes which he lived up to. The celebrated satire of I807 on Lord Milton's Sheffield election committee and agents, written by Mr. Bernard John Wake, -------------- * Sheffield Courant, March 5 I796. + Paper read before the Literary and Philosophical Society, 5th March 1889, p. 2I. -------------- claims to italicise some favourite expressions of Dr. Cheney's in the verse: Et tu quoque Cheney ! And are you so mean, aye, And soft as to follow a baby, With the hope that papa, Or more careful mamma, May reward you ?Ñtho' that's as it may be. Cheney, who came from Bakewell, was, it is said, intended to be a fork-maker, and was sent to learn the trade at Shiregreen; but somehow he drifted into physic, perhaps through heredity, since his father had been a surgeon. He began practice in Snig Hill, and was there in I774, but in I787 he lived in a house at the Hartshead corner of the Old Churchyard, near the Boys' Charity School. Afterwards, about I803, he went to 68, Norfolk Street, a house rated at the modest sum of £6.* Dr. Cheney afterwards removed to Portobello, to the upper of two quaint houses, approached by steps, on the south side of St. George's Church, near the top of Regent Street, where Mr. Joseph Kirk, secretary to the Infirmary, will be remem- bered as afterwards living. Dr. Cheney, who had to retire -------------- * The circumstance of his being in or near Cheney Square, has given rise to the notion that the name of that place was in some way connected with his residence there. But this cannot be. It was Cheney Square long before he went there and he did not stay long enough to impress his personality on a locality where there were far older inhabitants. Cheney is an old Sheffield family name. One Hugh Cheney or Cheiney or Cheyney (the do~tor by the way was also Hugh) appears in the Town Trust accounts as a Burgery tenant (always in arrear with his rent) in the years I645 to 1653. But a better clue to the origin of the name of the square is found in this fact. St. Paul's Church was built on a piece of ground bought for the purpose about 1719 called Shaw s Close or Oxley Croft; and in 1725 we find Robert Downes goldsmith who was chiefly instrumental in ere6ting the church selling Oxley Croft (presumably surplus land) to Edward Cheney for ~93 7s. 6d. Doubt has arisen as to whether the proper name is Cheney Square or China Square. It is Cheney in the Directories of I774 and I797 and the only authorities for China are the Infirmary procession programme of the latter year and the Directory of 1787. It is probable that the compiler of that Directory thought Cheney to be the local pronunciation of China (which approximately it is) and in the interests of a misguided politeness sought with an air of foolish superiority, to correct what he deemed a vulgarism. -------------------- from the position of ssnior surgeon to the Infirmary through fallure of sight in I8I2, became entirely blind. He lived in that house until his death in I830, at the age of 86. For some years he had, as a neighbour, the first Robert Leader, the two houses then standing quite alone, amid gardens which reached down to a foot walk, now Glossop Road, near the Bee Hive. Already, in I827, we hear of new file shops being built next door, over the garden wall, and in I875 the houses were taken down for the erection of the works of Christopher Johnson and Co. Dr. Cheney, who is described by Mr. Hunter as " a singularly agreeable and gentlemanly man," adhered to the old fashions in dress, to the last still wearing a wig. "After a long life of great activity and usefulness in his profession," says a contemporary chronicler, "he was called by an inscrutable Providence to spend his latter days under considerable priva- tions, having lost his sight twenty-two years past. He finished his course under great bodily sufferings, all of which he bore with becoming fortitude and resignation. The senior prac- titioner of the medical profession in the town, he was greatly esteemed. He for sixty years and upwards exerted himself most cheerfully in doing all the good in his power in the art of healing the afflicted." The only daughter of Dr. Cheney, Selina, had her life's romance. She was a friend of Miss Seward, the authoress, and was intellectually fitted to sympathise in her literary tastes; indeed, Mr. Hunter says " she stood eminentÑperhaps pre-eminentÑamong the young ladies of Sheffield in the period between the generation to which I belong and that before me." As to her love affair, there are two versionsÑone that it was with Dr. Ernest, who spent his whole life as house-surgeon at the Infirmary (beginning with the modest salary of ~30) and remained unmarried; the other that a Mr. Nickols, Dean of Middleham, jilted her in a way not very creditable to him. When well advanced in life, Miss Cheney married Mr. Richard Bayley, merchant. On his death, having sold (l832) the house in West Street, where they had lived, to the Dispensary (now the Royal Hospital) which had been begun a few months earlier in Tudor Place, Mrs. Bayley retired to Ashford, where she devoted the remainder of her life to good works. Mr. Bayley's house in West Street had belonged to the Loftus family, and while in their possession the first Sunday School in Sheffield was begun in it (I785). At that time it was a beautiful place, quite in the country, with grounds and shrubberies extending to Eldon Street and Devonshire Street. Mount Zion Chapel was built on part of the garden in I834. The house boasted the possession of a female ghost, and while tenantless, between Mr. Bayley's tenure and its conversion into a hospital, many persons watched its windows from the street, hoping to see the apparition. They were always dis- appointed. There has been much controversy, at various times, as to the residence of Dr. Thomas Younge, whose name, with that of his son, Dr. William Younge, stands high on the roll of Sheffield's physicians. There is, in the archives of the Town Trustees, an old plan (unfortunately not dated) which gives good ground for believing that it was at the jun~ion of Church Street and FargateÑ" Cole's Corner "Ñthat Dr. Thomas Younge lived. The plan assigns the property there to "the executors of Thomas Young," and next to it comes " Dorothy Osborn." In a somewhat later edition of the same plan, the occupant is given as " Asline, late Osborn and Young." And this is doubly interesting, because search has hitherto been made in vain for the whereabouts of William Asline, who is known have been in practice as a surgeon about that period. Dr. Thomas Younge is spoken of in a letter dated I753 as just beginning to practice. He died suddenly in his carriage, when driving on a professional visit to Wentworth Castle, in I784. Curiously enough, the Directory of I787 stops short with the letter W, and does not therefore help us to solve some doubts that have arisen as to the precise locality in which his son, Dr. William Younge, lived. He had begun practice in that year. The house usually attributed to him is that which stood at the corner of Church Street and St. James's Row, before those thoroughfares were last widened and the Glad- stone Buildings erectedÑa house occupied by a long line of do~tors, of whom Mr. Reedal and Mr. Wiltshire were the latest. But it is impossible to accept the statement that he was here when he commenced, because the house stood on what had been part of the Vicarage croft, and the lease of the land from the then Vicar to Thomas Warris, silver-plater, is not dated until the Ioth of April, I787. Dr. William Younge was certainly there later. To Mr. Arthur Jackson has been attributed the statement that Dr. William Younge lived subsequently at the corner of Figtree Lane and Queen Street, in a house where Mr. Hounsfield, and after him his pupil and successor, Mr. Haxworth, for many years practised. But this must be a mistake, for he is given in every Directory from I8I7 to I837 as living at 43, Church Street. He died in I838 at Sharrow Grange, whither he had retired, aged 84. It was he who initiated the movement which resulted in founding the Infirmary. He had occupied many positions of public responsi- bility, and, like his father, he died suddenly of apoplexy. But the two men were very unlike in other respects. Dr. Thomas Younge was described as " having a figure higher than middle stature, corpulent, sanguineous. His countenance bespoke thought, sagacity, and penetration; his health appeared to be uninterrupted, either from his fortunate constitution or his great skill." What his son was like we may judge from his full-length portrait by Moore, in the Cutlers' Hall. It truthfully represents him as " slim and dapper." There were formerly current in the town a good many stories of Dr. William Younge, some of which have been preserved by Alderman William Smith in the paper, to which several references have already been made, read before the Literary and Philosophical Society in I889. As a note of a change in professional etiquette, it is of some interest to remark that provincial physicians were more than a century behind their London brethren in establishing the custom of expecting a guinea at each visit, and in regarding it as beneath their dignity to send in bills. In London this practice was begun by Arbuthnot and others as early as I700; but in the country we find men of the standing of Dr. William Younge and Sir Arnold Knight sending in, " with their compliments," statements of the guineas due to them for attendances; and this custom was continued certainly to I840. But they made up for thus placing themselves on a level with mere apothecaries, by showing a dignified leisureliness and a lordly indifference to mere pelf. There is in existence a bill of Dr. Younge's for attendances from I827 to I83I. It is dated " Church Street, January I6, I832," but the post mark shows that it was not sent in until February 27, I834. Dr. William Younge had, as colleagues on the first staff of physicians to the Infirmary, Dr. Benjamin Wainwright and Dr. T. R. Steuart. The former lived for some time in Norfolk S~reet, and when lle died in I8I9, through injuries sustained by a fall from his horse, the Mercury paid high tribute " to his talents as a physician and his character as a man." And Barbara Wreaks had previously described him as "a grand bulwark against the batteries of death." With these fragments of contemporary testimony we have to be content. The third of the first Infirmary physicians, Dr. T. R. Steuart, seems to have been elected on the staff rather as a compliment to the position he had long held in the town, than on professional grounds, for he resigned as soon as the real work of the institution began. He was a Church Burgess, and was practising here in I77I. He had been in the lower part of Church Street, in or near the house afterwards occupied by Mr. C. H. Webb; but in I787, attracted to Paradise Square as appropriate to practitioners aspiring to style and position, he was in the top house there, erected not long before, and destined to become, in later times, the offices of Messrs. Brookfield and Gould, and of Messrs. Gould and Coombe. Dr. Samuel Cave, who succeeded him at the Infirmary, also held the appointment for a very short time. Nothing is known of him. Dr. Steuart had for neighbour in Paradise Square one Dr. Abraham Sutcliffe. As to him, local annals are silent, although he bore a name familiar among medical men. John Sutcliffe, M.D., had be~n a Town Trustee from I778 until his death in I784, when it was said that "the simplicity of hls manners and the active benevolence of his disposition, and indefatigable attention to the duties of his profession, rendered his character known and venerated in the neighbourhood." There was, too, Richard Sutcliffe, sometimes written Sutliffe or Sutliff, described as a noted druggist and apothecary, who dispensed medicine and advice largely at a shop near the Bay Horse, on Sheffield Moor. Among the apprentices who received from him the rudiments of their medical knowledge were Mr. Hall Overend and Mr. Jonathan Barber, senior themselves men of mark and the fathers of men of mark, partners in two generations, among Sheffield doctors. Richard Sutcliffe was a shrewd gentleman of the old-fashioned type who had obtained a reputation for skill in prescribing medi- cines and curing diseases, especially those of children. His shop, on the Moor, is described by one who remembered it as dlrty and slovenlyÑleatures which were characteristic of the druggists' stores of the period. The late Mr. Swift gave his high authority to the statement that Mr. Sutcliffe was after- wards at the corner of Church Street and Vicar Lane; but it seems more probable that this was Dr. Abraham Sutcliffe, who, with Dr. John Sutcliffe, nnay have been Richard Sutcliffe's pupils. They were both, no doubt, his relatives. There was in Paradise Square, too, at the end of the century, a surgeon whose name introduces us to a family honoured ever since in local medicine, Mr. John Favell. St. James's Street also, by its quietude, commended itself to the doctors; and two surgeons - Matthew Barker and Walter Reikie, otherwise unnoteworthy, were there. Mr. George Bower did not disdain to practice in Westbar Green, and in Westbar was Mr. William Frith, though he is more generally known in connection with Norfolk Street, where he afterwards lived. He was surgeon to the Loyal Independent Sheffield Volunteers, usually called " The Blues," and satirised by Mather as " Raddle-Neck'd Tups." The nickname of " Dr. Inkbottle" w as conferred on Mr. Frith because on the occasion of a public dinner at the Tontine he so far forgot himself as to carry away a bottle, supposing it to contain wine. It proved, however, to be a bottle of ink, and the do~or's chagrin was perpetuated in a cognomen which never left him. Another story of Mr. Frith is that, being ill, he sent for Dr. Arnold Knight and another medical friend. They told him he might have an ounce of brandy. The next day this conversation took place. " Ah, you feel better ? " " Yes, much better." " Did you take the ounce of brandy ? " " I took all I could, but I could not get down more than twelve glasses." " Twelve glasses ? " '~ Yes; you know there are sixteen drams in an ounce, and I could not swallow more than twelve." In Bull Stake there was Mr. John Hounsfield, one of the family that had works on Pond Hill. He afterwards resided in the house at the corner of Figtree Lane and Queen Street, which is associated in many of our minds with the late Mr. Haxworth, who was apprenticed to him. The statement that Mr. Hounsfield built that house in I784 hardly accords with the fact that he was practising in Bull Stake in I787. Mr. John Sterndale's surgery was in Sycamore Street. As the husband of one of Sheffield's authoresses, Mary Handley Sterndale,* the friend of Chantrey and of Robert Bennett, organist of the Parish Church (the name of whose son, Sir William Sterndale Bennett, bore testimony to the intimacy), he was a prominent member of the intellectual circle which, in the earlier years of the nineteenth century, cultivated literature, art, and music. He was an honoured member of the medical profession until his death in I833, and his wife survived him until I840. Mr. William Lunn practised in Fargate. Our knowledge of him is restricted to what is told in the inscription on a tablet in the south-east corner of St. James's Church. From this we learn that he died in I797, aged 48. The other doctors of that period have left no records. They were Mr. Blain (York Street), Dr. Duncan (Angel Street), Mr. John Hoyland (Fargate), and Mr. Joseph North (Silver Street). It is (conjec'lurally) to Dr. Duncan that Barbara Wreaks, in her ~ Characteristics of some of the leading inhabitants of Shemeld at the close of the eighteenth century," applied the tantalising quotation, " I could a tale unfoldÑ" Unfor- tunately she never told that tale, and the gossiping annals of the town are to that exlent the poorer. These medical recollections have led us away from our starting point, which was an endeavour to show that the professional men all lived in town streets, hardly more than a stone's throw from the Market Place or the Church. What is -------------- * see post, Chapter xv. -------------- - true of the doctors is also true of the lawyers. Of these the principal, towards the end of the seventeenth century, were William Simpson, Thomas Chappell, and George Lee. They were all members of the Town Trust, as reconstituted by the Decree of Charitable Uses in I68I; and Chappell especially, with his pupil and successor, Joseph Banks, pervades the affairs of the period, his fingers being found in every pie. Lee, who was a member of the well-known Little Sheffield family, has already been mentioned in conne~ion with his son, Mr. Robert Lee, surgeon.* John Styring (I684-I707) was contemporary with these, and first legal adviser to the Town Trustees under the title of Town Clerk. Thomas Wright followed him in that office. Other notable attorneys were Henry Waterhouse, High Street, and Francis ~;itwell, clerk to the Cutlers' Company (died I74I), son of an older attorney, William Sitwell. The Poll Tax of I692 names three others:Ñ Thos. Freeman, Wm. Addams, and Mr. Bacon.+ Of even greater fame was John Battie, attorney and Steward of the Manor Court, whose office was the nursery of men prominent in the next generation of lawyersÑWilliam Battie, his son; Samuel Dawson, his son-in-law; and James Wheat. William Battie died in I774. The Directory of that year does not contain his name, but in it appear those of eight attorneys, who, like the doctors, were beginning to drift towards Paradise Square. Samuel Dawson was already there. He had, in I74I-2, on the death of Thomas Wright, won the clerkship to the Town Trustees in a contest against Mr. Gilbert Dixon, clerk to the Cutlers' Company, whose office was in Sycamore Street; and he held that position until, dying in I777, James Wheat, who, like him, had been articled to John Battie, was elected in his place. Dawson, as already indicated, had married one of Battie's daughters. Her sister Susan, who was Queen of the Assembly in I750, married Mr. Thomas Smith, '" ironmonger," of High Street (from whom the Smiths of Dunstan, near Chesterfield, descended), and their daughter became the first wife of the Rev. Alexander Mackenzie, of St. Paul's Church. --------------- * Ante, p. 175 + Post. Chapter XIII. ---------------- As Mr. James Wheat removed from the Hartshead to the third house from the top in Paradise Square somewhere about I777, it seems probable that these were the premises Dawson had occupied, the new Town Clerk following, in this respect, in the steps of his predecessor. If this be so, it gives us a very interesting sequence; for in that house the practice, whether continued or founded by Mr.Wheat, is still carried on unblemished to the fourth generation. James Wheat the elder died in I805. His son, of the same name, then became clerk to the Town Trustees, and kept the office until I846, when, resigning it in consequence of failing health, Mr. John Staniforth, brother to William Staniforth the surgeon, was appointed. Mr. Staniforth died two years after, and an attempt was made to get the clerkship back to the Wheat family of the third generation. But although this was not successful, the late Mr. Henry Vickers being chosen, the clerkship to the Church Burgesses remains to this day in the hands of the first James Wheat's descendants. Barbara Wreaks was very especially attracted by the Wheats. '~ View him in all lights," was the quotation she found suitable to Mr. Wheat, ~and you must like him in each; he has learning without pedantry, wit without satire, and good humour without nonsense; his mind has great powers, and his heart inestim- able virtues." To Mrs. Wheat she applied these lines: Polite as all her life in Courts had been; And good as she she world had never seen. To the elder daughter she addressed these compliments: "Thou hast a form that melts the soul to love, and manners that inspire it with virtue; the beam that sparkles in thine eye blends the softness of sensibility, the energy of mind, and the purity of benevolence; in thee is united all the mind adores in the angel, or loves in the woman." Of a younger daughter it was said: Angels are painted fair to look like you, In you there's all that we conceive of heaven. In Paradise Square, too, was Thomas Sambourn, Deputy Clerk of the Peace. He left Sheffield in I792, and died in America in I806. His father came from Oxford, and married Miss Wheat, of Retford, whose mother was a Miss Cockshutt, of Cawthorne. Michael Burton, attorney, fourth son of Wil- liam Burton of Royds Mill occupied, with his elder brother the surgeon,* premises here; and also shared with him the lordship of the manor of Wadsley, which came to them from their mother, Margaret, sister and heiress of George Bamforth, of High House. Another well-known attorney was Mr. John Brookfield. He was in Campo Lane, next door to Mrs. Ward, who kept a school on the site of Messrs. Burbeary and Smith's offices at what came to be, when North Church Street was made in I83I, the corner of that uncompromising thoroughfare. Mr. Brookfield was the solicitor employed to conduct the first prosecution of Montgomery, in I795, Mr. John Sheanvood being entrusted with the defence. Other attorneys in I774 were Mr. Kenyon Parker and Mr. Mark Skelton, in Bull Stake, and Mr. Sylvester Wadsworth, in Church Lane; ancl to them have to be added, in I787, Mr. John Parker, Change Alley, and Mr. Rimington, Angel Street. Even Pond Lane was not thought unworthy of the legal profession, while Mr. W. Hoyle practised in the rural neighbourhood of Portmahon. The residences of the clergy and Nonconformist ministers are equally significant of the limitations of the town at the close of the last century. Vicar Wilkinson, being owner of Broom Hall, lived in that mansion, and was accordingly able to relinquish the Vicarage to others, so the Rev. Matthew Preston, one of the assistant ministers, occupied it. One of his colleagues, the Rev. Edward Goodwin, who combined with his position at the Parish Church the curacy of Attercliffe, lived in what in those days was a remote regionÑ" The Banks," by Boardman Bridge, in Clough Lane, about where is now the junction of Clough Road, Duchess Road, and Leadmill Road. The double row of Lombardy poplars, running from Boardman Bridge towards East Bank, planted by Mr. Nowill, the High Street ironmonger, was long a conspicuous feature here, and gave rise to the name, " Poplar Walk." After the death of the elder Goodwin, his son and successor, of the same name, continued to occupy the house ------------- * Ante, p. I78. -------------- until he, too, in I847 passed away. The two Goodwins were most excellent men. The elder, to whose careful records we are indebted for much invaluable local information, was instrumental in founding the Girls' Charity School. He was so beloved that it is said as he walked through the streets children formed themselves in groups and stood to receive his blessing. There is a touching story of the manner in which the younger Goodwin went through life, courageously and silently bearing the burden of unmerited obloquy. With many high qualities, he was censoriously condemned as insufferably mean. Although a bachelor, and reputed wealthy, he was never known to Give a mite When asked by high or low; A good excuse he always found For meeting them with ~ No." Not until the day of his funeral, when large numbers of poor recipients of his secret bounty attended to mourn their bene- factor and testify their gratitude, was it discovered how cruelly the world had wronged him, for he had done good by stealth, and had quietly given away to the indigent the whole of his property, except £2000 which he left to an orphan girl whom he had maintained after the death of her father.* The Rev. George Bayliffe, third of the contemporary assist- ant ministers of the Parish Church, lived and died in what the Directory of I787 calls New Street. With him, in the year named, resided his son, the Rev. William Bayliffe, at that time assistant curate at the New Church (St. Paul's), and after- wards, by the presentation of Mr. Shore, of Meersbrook, a dissenter, Rec~or of Blore, Staffordshire. New Street is specially named by James Wills as standing in I827, "in its ancient deformity." It retains to this day (I900) unchanged, a striking example of what the old Sheffield streets were. But we should be mistaken in associating the assistant minister's official residence with New Street as we know it now, for in the days of which we are writing it was one continuous thoroughfare from Campo Lane to Westbar, there being no ---------------- * See a rhyming vindication of Mr. Goodwin in the Sheffield Inde- pendent. December 26 I882. ----------------- Bank Street intervening.* It was really in Figtree Lane that Mr. Bayliffe lived, with his "pretty large family" of nine children, " brought up in a respe~able manner," on "but a small income." And it was hence that we must pi~ture him sallying forth for his customary country walk, in the early morning, before breakfast. Oft have I seen him at the break of day, Brushing with hasty steps the dews away says one who remembers him, wearing a curled wig and a cocked hat, his naturally short stature accentuated by the stoop of age. --------------- * The whole of what we now divide into Figtree Lane and New Street is called in Gosling's plan (I736)Ñwhich sho-vs it as an exceedingly narrow footpath at the topÑFigtree Lane. In Fairbank's (I777) it is all called New Street or alternatively Figtree Lane. There was a cross lane running from the bottom of Meetinghouse Lane and top of Scargill Croft to the present Figtree Lane and gradual extension of this west- ~vard was beginning to take shape in ~vhat some seemed inclined to call Fig Street and some (who ultimately prevailed) Queen Street. The east- ward extension to Irish Cross afterwards known as Bank Street came later. As neither North Church Street nor North S~reet had been made there were ~hree narrow lines of communication between Campo Lane and WestbarÑdown Meetinghouse Lane Scargill Croft and West Court; or Figtree Lane and New Street; or Paradise Square and Workhouse Croft (Paradise Street); the last like all the rest being scarcely more than a " jennel." The fact is then that the later name New Street was in I787, attempting to supplant the older Figtree Lane; but all it succeeded in doing in the long run was to change the name of the lo~ver part and to leave the upper above Bank Street in possession of its old designation. The question ~vhether Mr. Bayliffe's residence was in Figtree Lane or New Street is set at rest by the fact that Mr. Robert Rollinson, among his other generous benefactions in I605 bequeathed two houses " in Figtree Lane " (spoken of as Fig Tree Hall in I626) to the Church Burgesses in trust for the use of the assistant ministers. And that body still holds the land on the west side of Figtree Lane between Queen Street and what used to be the Je~vs Synagogue. Here there was within living memory a stone building apparently two centuries old with small leaded window panes which may well have been the house given by Rollinson. It was in its last days the currier's shop of Mr. Smith and his two sons librarians at the Mechanics' Library; and Mr. Elias Lowe, another currier in Bank Street was old enough to remember the fig trees which gave the lane its name growing one of them on the front of a -------------- The situation of his house was not a bad one, for the Campo Lane residencesÑthe Broadbents' looking to York Street and the Barlows' looking at right angles across its front to Hartshead, and their neighboursÑhad gardens sloping down the hill to Wade's orchard, through which Queen Street afterwards passed; and of these Mr. Bayliffe's back windows had the benefit. The Gentleman's Magazine, in a notice prob- ably written by his colleague, the Rev. Edward Goodwin, speaks of Mr. Bayliffe in his domestic and clerical relations in the highest terms. On Sunday, the I6th of December, I804, when preparing to take part in the services of the church, he was struck with death. His age was eighty-three. He had been for forty-years years assistant minister, and for thirty- four of them perpetual curate of Ecclesall. He was a native of Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmoreland. The Rev. Joseph Evans, from I759 to I798 joint minister of the Upper Chapel and of Fulwood (at first in conjunction with the Rev. John Dickinson, and afterwards with the Rev. Benjamin Naylor), after living in Cheney Square, had gone into the country region of Portobello. He is worthy of lasting remembrance as the helpful friend of the historian of Hallam- shire, who was himself born in " a new-fronted pair, entered by an entry," at the Norfolk Street end of New Church Street opposite Dr. Cordon Thompson's house. Hunter has left on record an affectionate and eulogistic sketch of his benefactor's character. Mrs. Evans, too. who was the daughter of the Rev. Thomas Haynes, Mr. Evans' predecessor in the pulpit of Upper Chapel, was a sort of foster-mother to Hunter, and at one time he lived with her in the Portobello house and at 9I, Norfolk Street. When Mr. Hunter was studying for the ministry at the academy of the Rev. Mr. Wellbeloved, New College, York, he maintained a regular and intimate corres- pondence with Mrs. Evans. The Rev. Benjamin Naylor, Mr. Evans' colleague and successor, lived in Pinstone Lane, but afterwards he removed to the house at the bottom of Red Hill, associated in the more recent times with the names of the Skinners, father and son, surgeons. Mr. Naylor did not consider business affairs incom- ........ the si]ver-plating firm of Mr. Samuel Roberts, he withdrew money to take a share with Mr. Montgomery in the Iris- enterprise out of which he promptly scuttled when such comfortable things as indi~ments and imprisonments began to fly about. He afterwards left the ministry to conduct, with indifferent success, a cotton mill in Manchester.* Other ministers generally resided near their chapels; the Rev. J. Harmar, of Nether Chapel, in Norfolk Street; the Rev. T. Bryant, in Scotland Street; the Rev. A. McNab, of Lee Croft, otherwise " Back Lane," Chapel, in Bailey Field, then a newly-made street, running through the open land between Trippet Lane and Broad Lane; and the Rev.T. Rad- ford, of St. Paul's, in Arundel Street. The Rev. C. Chadwick, of the Grammar School, occupied the headmaster's house adjoining; and his usher, Mr. Anthony Robinson, and Mr. John Eadon, of the Free Writing School, both also lived in Campo Lane. There were other school- masters in Norfolk Street, Queen Street, Paradise Square, Burgess Street, and Pea Croft. The I787 Directory contains the names of only twelve in- habitants entitled to the designation of " gentleman." Mr. Thomas Bright was one of these. He lived in Hawley Croft (previously written Holy Croft), in an old building demolished about I874. It bore on its front the date I72I. with the initials T J D S, or perhaps D S. It was a very large house, as things were then reckoned. containing some twenty-four rooms, and it boasted, in " Squire Bright's " time, a spacious grass-plot and gardens extending to Lee Croft. Squire Bright, who did not consider it beneath his dignity to discharge duties connected with the collecting of rates, is described as a goodly-looking personage, with powdered wig, cocked-hat, gold-headed cane, and silver shoe-buckles, and he was even then sufficiently out of keeping with his surroundings to be, along with the beauti- ful pigeons he kept, an object of admiration and wonder to the urchins of the neighbourhood. The house had an interesting history. It is believed to have been the residence of John ------------- * " History of Upper Chapel," by the Rev. J. E. Manning, p 92. -------------- Smith, Master Cutler in I722, an ancestor on the maternal side of Joseph Hunter, the Hallamshire historian. In later years, before Squire Bright lived there, it was the Ball Inn, kept by Jonathan Beardshaw (whose father, mother, and sister had presided over the Cock, ir~Hollis Croft, in its palrny days), ancestor of the proprietors of the Baltic Works, Attercliffe.# Just below the house thus described, in Hawley Croft, there was another substantial stone residence, with quoins and string courses and two bow windows.+ It bore an inscription M. with the date I724, and the letters J. M.Ñthe initials of ---------------- * Beardshaw is a name of considerable antiquity and of honoured con- tinuance here. The family is found at Great Grimsby, holding such offices as Churchwarden and Mayor (I6I8-I658), and there were Beard- shaws churchwardens at Ecclesfield in 1648 and I683. The first Beard- shaw of whom we have knowledge in Shemfield was John, admitted to the freedom of the Cutlers' Company in 17I6. He possessed property in Hollis Croft, and in I726 erected buildings where from that day to this the family has carried on the business of cutlers. His son and grandson (both John, and both freemen of the Cutlers' Company) united with their trade the duties of landlords of " The Cock." The inn was afterwards carried on by the sister of the last John Beardshaw, who married Samuel Henderson, She lived until I859, when she died at the age of 76. Her brother Jonathan Beardshaw (1780-I85I), while continuing the Hollis Croft Cutlery Works, took " The Ball " Inn, Hawley Croft. He was the father of twenty-nine children, of whom twenty-eight were born in regular succession at intervals of ten months through twenty-three years. Only two of these were surviving in I822 (Sheffield Mercury - Aug. IO, I822), the eldest, who became Alderman George Beardshaw, of the Baltic Works: and the twenty-eighth, destined to carry on the ancestral business at Diamond Works, Hollis Croft, and to have as his son Mr. Henry John Beardshaw who still lives in his father's house at the corner of Northum- berland Road and Western Bank (" Western Hill," formerly called - The Racecourse Nook Crookesmoor~), and continues the manufacture of cutlery in Hollis Croft. + We get a note conne~inf the house with the celebrated cutlery firm of Rodgers, in an old rent book containing this entry in I724:Ñ" A Leasehold House Workshop and Vacant Land Situated in Holy Croft Lett to John Rodgers paying yearly Seven Guineas." " On account of a New Warehouse being Built the rent from 29 Septr I778 to be £IO I4s. 0d. " The year of last payment of rent I785, corresponds with the inscription on the Rodgers tombstone over the large vault on the north side of the Sheffield Parish Church. (See " Our Old Church Yard " page I4, by John Holland.) Jonathan Moor, Master Cutler in I723, and of his wife Mary (nee Downs).# At the Townhead Cross, in a house which dwarfed the meaner buildings around it, lived, until misfortune over- whelmed him in I79I, Mr. Joseph Matthewman. He it was who, carrying forward the plans of his father, Joshua Matthew- man, for supplying the town with water from Crookes Moor, handed down the family interest in the greater schemes of which this undertaking was the germ to his descendant, the late Mr. Albert Smith, and to his sons after him. Mr. Matthewman s house stood with its side to the gates of St. James's Church, that is, looking towards what is now Leopold Street. It afterwards became the residence of a succession of surgeonsÑof Mr. John Moorhouse, and on his death, through a fall from his horse, in I8I5, of his pupil, Mr. James Ray, who occupied it until, between I833 and I837, he took the bold step of building himself a house " quite in the country," now Mr. John Hall's, at the corner of Vi~toria Street and Glossop Road. Then Mr. George Turton, formerly in Church Street, was there. At the last, before it and the neighbouring tene- ments were swept away, it was the shop of Mr. Jackson, pork butcher. It may be pretty confidently assumed that, as applied to others in the Directory of I787, the term "gentleman" simply implied men of no occupation, who had retired from business. These were Mr. George Elliott, Norfolk Street; Mr. Thomas Fox, Milk Street; Mr. Henry Hufton, Bailey Field (father, probably, of Mr. Anthony Hufton, who was the first secretary to and authorised collector of subscriptions for the General Infirmary); Mr. S. Kirkby, Norfolk Street; Messrs. John and Samuel Smith, Westbar; Mr. John ~aite, Castle Green Head; Mr. John Wingfield, Hollis Croft; and Mr. John Winter, Churchyard. --------------- * Another Jonathan Moor, son of the above, was Master Cutler in 1758. Mr. John Wilson (Mather's Songs, p 73) says he was landlord of the 0ld Tankard, Westbar Green, a favourite resort of grinders, according to Mather, who fiercely assailed him in ~The Valentine." Moor was born in Hull. ---------------

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