SchooIdays - Memories and History
                     Pre 20th. Century



THE origin of the name, Campo Lane, has always been a standing puzzle. Many attempts have been made to solve it, but none of them have achieved conspicuous success. Mr. Hunter, having discovered that " camp " is the old name for football in Norfolk and Suffolk, thought that the mention of a " Campa-field" among the Sheffield estates of the Howards indicated a field, perhaps the space now called Paradise Square, appropriated to this sport. But apart from the difficulty of playing football on a steep hill-side, this guess cannot be accepted. Another suggestion is that the name has reference to the ridge-like position of the lane. The problem CaD only be left in the realm of things unknown. It is also impossible to say whether the form " Camper " or " Campo " is the older. " Campo " occurs in the Burgery accounts as early as I675; Gosling (1736) gives "Camper"; and in an inden- ture, dated I734, Elizabeth Hawley, widow, conveys to William Hawley, dyer, "all that messuage, etc., in Camper alias Campo Lane, wherein the said William Hawley doth now inhabit, together with all barns, buildings, stables, orchards, gardens, etc., to the same belonging, always reserving to the said Elizabeth the croft called Pond Croft, or Hawley Croft, and all the houses thereon erected." The Hawley family gave the name to that croft, which ran up to Campo Lane from Tenter street. Elizabeth Hawley was probably the widow of Joseph Hawley, a Town Trustee from 17I3 to his death in 1724. William Hawley was an unsuccessful candidate for election on that body, I742. The house of a neighbour of these Hawleys was still stand- ing until I900‹the " Crown Inn," at the corner of Campo Lane and Lee Croft. Over the door it bore the date I726, and T initials which are presumably I B, It was the residence of Isaac Barnes, one of the old school of manufacturers. His workshops, where he carried on one of the oldest cutlery (spring-knife) trades, were just above. After his son, Mr. George Barnes, built himself a residence at Ranmoor, his house became an inn. At the opposite corner of Lee Croft is the house, still retaining its fine staircase, of Mr. Josephus Parkin, maker of razors and penknives. He and his son after him, had a garden opposite, where is now Vicar Lane, formerly known as St. James's Hill. Another Campo Lane house, at the corner of Virgin's Walk (St. James's Row), facing Paradise Square, was a gabled tavern of the genuine old stamp. Its small windows and low ceilings With substantial beams besl-oke great antiquity: while its clean sanded floors and the characier of its company indicated capable management and a highly respecled landlord. The name of the house is lost. James Wills, it will be remembered,* speaks of the stile which led from the churchyard into Campo Lane as " near the little ' Grape' tavern." This clearly indicates the position and name of the house; hut it seems unlikely that there would be a " Grapes Inn " here when there was another of the same name on the other side of the churchyard, in Church Street. lt has been said that the landlord was Mr. Richard Bramley, father of Sheffield's first Town Clerk. but this does not accord with letters of administration, which speak of him as of Bridlington Quay, gentleman. He had a brother Joseph, a wine and spirit merchant, and his cousin, William Bramley, was land- lord of a public-house at the top of Castle Green, now the " Black Rock." In 1828 the Campo Lane inn was called the "Queen's Head," and it was then kept by John Fordham. Hartshead, the origin of whose name has not been traced, is one of the most ancient nooks of the town, and is full of old-world memories. Many of these centre around the Quakers, whose meeting-houses have been there for two hundred years. The first of which any record remains was the little building on the west side of Meetinghouse Lane, utilised in later days as the residence of the caretaker and for committee meetings. The only clue to its date were the figures I705 over a fireplace. George Fox, the founder of the society, came occasionally to Ballifield, near Handsworth, where the Staceys _______ * Ante, p. 256 _______ were his adherents; and to Stannington, where the Shaws, of The Hill, near Revell Grange, welcomed him gladly. At both places the remnants of gravestones in the burying grounds of Cinderhill and Bowcroft record the names of the earliest Friends, some of whom, as an inscription tells, " suffered much for bearing testimony against the payment of tythes." Fox himself did not, apparently, visit Sheffield, though his friend and disciple, John Grattan, of Monyash, did. Undoubtedly small in numbers, the society comprised men influential enough to play a conspicuous part in the colonisation of the new world. Our townsman, Mr. Charles H. Firth,* has discovered in the Bodleian Library two letters in which Sir John Reresby, of Thrybergh, reported (July I7, I677) that: " Severall persons with their wiues and children (in all to near the nomber off 200) many of them Quaquers and other dissenters, inhabitants about Sheffield and the adjoining parts of Nottingrhamshire and Darbyshr. (the principall of them sectaries but the rest able servants and labourers) haue lately gone and are euery day as yet going by the way of Hull to transport themselves to an Island in America called west Jarsey, and are dayly followed by others upon the same design." Reresby, as Deputy of the Lord Lieutenant, the Earl of Danby, applied for instructions as to stopping the ships; and he also wrote to the Seeretary to the Duke of York to ask if it were true, as " the chief undertaker in the affair, one Richard Mathews,+ of Sheffield, a Quaker, said, that the island called New Jersey or West Jersey, two hundred miles in length and sixty miles over, as yet uninhabited, had been bought from his Highness, with implied " Libertie to send ouer inhabitants to plant the same." Meantime, while the commands of the King and the Duke were awaited, Mathews had been charged at the Barnsley Sessions with enticing away servants from their masters, and leaving the realm without leave, and he had been bound over to the next Assizes to make his defence. ___________ * " American Historical Review," April, I897, pp. 472-474 + One of the gravestones in the old Quakers' Cemetery at Bowcroft (Stannington) records the burial of " Fines Matthews, late of Hill, who departed this life the 4th: of the First Month, I729-8, aged 87 years " The name of Richard Matthews is found in the New Jersey archives among those who signed " The Concessions, &c, of the "Poprietors, &c, of West New Jersey, " March 3, l677 ____________ - Reresby's officious interference was belated, and his geography was shaky. For in I663 Charles II. had trans- ferred to his " dear brother " part of the mainland of New England and Long Island, and James had promptly sold it to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. It was proposed to call it New Jersey or New Czesarea; and long before Reresby awoke to what was going on, the colony had been settled and a constitution adopted, securing the religion, liberties, and property of the adventurers.* The Quakers were not without their troubles there; but the persecutions to which they were subjected being brought under the notice of the King, he very peremptorily put a stop to them. So it is probable that Sir John Reresby got a rap on the knuckles for meddling; and the bigots of the period had to give vent to their chagrin in scurrilous verses, which may be read to-day in the library of the British Museum.+ America continued to have a powerful attraction for the Friends here, long after the days when they sought it as an asylum. Something like a score of prominent local members of the Society migrated at one time or another, though not always permanently, to the United States. These included Thomas Colley, and Daniel Wheeler, partner with Mr. Aldam, of Church Street, celebrated as zealous Quaker missionaries. The American Quakers, in turn, sent their members on religious visits here. John Woolman,# who, in I772, crossed the seas, in orcler to visit Friends in the northern parts of England, and more particularly in Yorkshire, records how he came to Sheffield from Nottingham: " Second of eighth month and first of the week;. I was this day at Sheffield, a large inland town. I was at sundry meetings last week, and feel inward thankfulness for that Divine support which hath been graciously extended to me." The poverty and physical and moral degradation of the people, when others, even Friends, were indulging in ostentatious luxury, impressed him painfully. __________ * " The Grants, Concessions, and Original Constitutions of New Jersey " Philadelphia, 1757. + See a ballad in the British Museum (I675), entitled, " The Quakers' Farewell to England, on their Voyage to New Jersey " (643 m II, 56.) # Ante, pp 98, II2. Woolman's Journal, p 233. _____________ He notes the dirtiness and festering filth of the narrow streets in towns and villages. Almost immediately on arrival at York he was seized with small-pox, and died there. The Society of Friends in Sheffield numbered, in I736,172 members. Gosling's plan of that year shows the early Meeting House already described, and a small Quakers' burying place on the north side of Broad Lane. It was in the following year, I737, that Joseph Broadbent, Gideon Wells, and twelve other Quakers, bought of Daniel Robinson, linen draper, I025 yards of orchard land, east of Meetinghouse Lane, with right of way for foot-people or saddle-horses from Angel Street. This plot is described in the deed of conveyance as " bounded on the east by orchards or backyards of messuages of Daniel Robinson and his tenants; west, by barns or buildings late belonging to John Nodder; north, by the garden of Samuel Shore; south, by the yard or backside of his Grace the Duke of Norfolk, in possession of Thomas Cawthorne.'' Here the Society erected a new Meeting House, using the remainder of the land as a burial ground. In I763, the property having been reconveyed to new trustees, the Meeting House was rebuilt; and yet again in I806. Joseph Broadbent, earlier than the Joseph named ahove, died in I684, and was one of the first generation of the Society of Friends in the town. His son Nicholas built the fine old house at the corner of Figtree Lane, facing York Street, to which reference has been made in previous chapters. When, on the failure of their Bank,* Joseph and Thomas Broadbent (sons of Nicholas Broadbent) migrated to Brelsforth Orchard, the Hartshead premises were occupied by Mr. John Turner who died in I796. Through his niece, they came into the pos- sion of the Binneys, who, besides having one of the best home trades as merchants, had large steel furnaces here, remains of which could still be seen long after the house had begun to be the offices (I825) of a succession of lawyers. The premises standing at right angles to the Broadbents' house, separated by the entrance to what is now called St. Peter's Close, and looking towards Watson's Walk, are intimately connected with Sheffield's early trading, for here, _________ * Ante, pp 89, 90. ________________ long before I679, was Obadiah Barlow. He and his descendants manufactured such excellent pen and pocket cutlery as to make their name famous, and their trade mark is still a valuable possession in living use. The last of the family in the Hartshead was John Barlow, who died in I798, and through the marriage of his daughter (the great-great- granddaughter of the aforesaid Obadiah) with a neighbour, Thomas Scantlebury, looking-glass manufacturer, we come again into touch with the notable Quakers of this neighbour- hood. The Scantleburys' premises faced East Parade, so they were handily close to the churchyard when meetings vvere held in it during the anti-church-rate agitations in which Thomas Scantlebury and his eldest son, John Barlow Scantle- bury, took prominent part. Thomas Scantlebury the elder afterwards went to live at The Hills, Grimesthorpe Road, the view from which was described as one of the loveliest in England. A younger son, Samuel Scantlebury, spent the greater part of his life in Chicago, where he died in I874, but he always cherished affectionate remembrances of Sheffield, and was interested in its doings to the last. Many still living must remember the old cottages in the Hartshead, between Figtree Lane and Meetinghouse Lane, ultimately pulled down to make room for offices built for the Town Clerk. They stood considerably below the street level, and were typical, in their picturesque decay, of the abodes which satisfied the modest requirements of our forefathers.* They were a survival of the days when, before York Street was made, the Hartshead was divided into two irregular openings connected, by a narrow footpath, with these and similar buildings on either hand. It was at the eastern corner of this passage that Joseph Gales, " bookseller, stationer, printseller, auctioneer, and agent to the Royal Exchange Fire Office," kept his shop, and from here, in partnership with Mr. David Martin, as printer, editor, ------------ * A well-known character who lived here in our own day was one Radford, a bill-poster, exceedingly stout and scant of breath; but accepting imperative summonses to go out with paste, brush, and ladder at the most unreasonable hours of both day and night with the utmost equanimity. ___________ and publisher of the Sheffield Register, he inveighed against the powers that were, and stimulaLed revolutionary sentiments. Gales was born at Eckington, where his father was parish clerk, and served his apprenticeship with Hole, a printer of Newark, in which town also he found a wife, Winifred Marshall, a woman of strong sense and some literary tastes, for she wrote a novel called " Lady Emma Melcombe." The newspaper was begun in I787; but it is probable that its strenuous political views were too pronounced and too dangerous for Mr. Martin, who, trained under Mr. Beilby, of Newcast]e-upon-Tyne, was an engraver in Norfolk Street. The partnership was accordingly dissolved in I789, and the newspaper was continued with great spirit by Mr. Gales. Sheffield, which had celebrated the successes of " our French brethren over despots and despotism" by roasting an ox whole, and carrying it in procession through the town, amidst the firing of cannon and the acclaims of thousands of people had already incurred the hatred of the Government, and the zeal of the Register early marked it as inviting to a prosecution that should strike a blow at " sedition." Not until I794 however, did the time seem ripe for the long-contemplated attack. "The Society for Constitutional Information,'' com- posed of those who saw in the French Revolution a summons to Englishmen to rise on behalf of liberty, getting bolder and more outspoken by the success of its campaign and by growing indications of popular approval, began to hold meetings in the open air. After one of these, on the Castle Hill, Mr. Gales who had been chairman, was accompanied to his office in the Hartshead by a crowd singing, to the tune of the National Anthem, a song of Mather's, beginning, " God save great Thomas Paine." The Tories replied by giving, regardless of grammar and decency, such toasts as this at their convivial gatherings: " May Tom Paine live for ever; may he never die, nor nobody never kill him; but may he be put in a bag and hang swig-swag over Hell's gate till doomsday. May the Devil sweep Hell with the enemies of the King, and afterwards burn the broom." * ____________ * Sheffield Register, April 25, I793. Tom Paine, who had been an officer of excise in Lincolnshire, was employed in the works of the Walkers, of Masbro', chiefly, it would seem, in connection with the iron bridges they erected over the Wear and the Thames ___________ A pamphlet, preserved in the British Museum, entitled, " Fast Day as observed at Sheffield, I794," records that: " A Royal Proclamation having been issued commanding February the 28th, I794, to be observed as a General Fast, the friends of Peace and Reform in Sheffield determined to honour the day in the most distinguished manner. Accordingly the Thousands of that town assembled upon a spaclous plain near West Street, Backfields, where the meeting was opened with prayer. After which a serious lecture was delivered. Immediately, after, William Camage being called to the chair, the following resolutions were unanimously passed, and the meeting dissolved in that orderly and peaceable manner which so eminently distinguishes the patriotic inhabitants of Sheffield." After formulating the meeting's abhorrence of the war, protesting against the landing of Hessian troops, and remark- ing on the irony of fasts being ordered with the same breath which commands the shedding of oceans ot human blood was resolved: " That therefore the people have no remedy for their grievances but a Reform in Parliament‹a measure which we determine never to relinquish though we follow our Brethren in the same glorious cause to Botany Bay." In the following April, the Register invited " the Friends of Justice, Liberty and Humanity to meet on the Castle Hill to consider upon the propriety of addressing the King in behalf of the persecuted patriots . . . also of petitioning the House of Commons for a reform in the representation of the people, and to determine upon the propriety of petitioning the King for the total and unqualified abolition of negro slavery." A report of the proceedings at this meeting, printed for the Sheffield Constitutional Society, is also in the British Museum, and to it is appended " An address to the British nation, being an exposition of the motives which have determined the people of Sheffield to petition the House of Commons no more on the Subject of Parliamentary Reform." The only name mentioned in the whole record is that of Henry Yorke, who presided and delivered a long address. At the conclusion of the proceedings, "To show the high sense entertained of Henry Yorke's services at this meeting by the populace, he was no sooner seated in the coach which attended on him than the horses were taken from the carriage and the people drew him through most of the public streets in Sheffield, amid the acclamations of thousands; which done, after a few admonitory words from the orator, every man went peaceably to his own home." This filled up the cup of iniquity, and the authorities, goaded to action by Northall's newly-established Courant, ordered a prosecution against Henry Redhead Yorke, who had been chairman. William Broomhead, secretary of the Con- stitutional Society, William Camage, late secretary, and J. Moody were apprehended on charges of sedition, and were conveyed to London under military escort. Another indi- vidual, a stranger to Sheffield, since he had resided here a few weeks only, had a narrow escape. The story is told by Montgomery: "Two of the Sheffield Constables entered a well-known public-house suddenly, and bolting into the company room crowded with ale-bibbers and tobacco smokers, asked if D was there. He was, but the person who sat next to him, with a presence of mind and promptitude of impudence rarely ex- emphfied, at once answered, ' No; he went off to Leeds this morning.' So they departed. The object of their search after- wards escaped to America, where he became a store-keeper and a Justice of the Peace." Although Mr. Gales had been at the meeting, he was not included in the prosecution. In the following June, hov ever, a lelter from a Sheffield printer to Hardy, the secretary of the London Corresponding Society, was seized, and Gales was suspected, though unjustly, of being the writer. A warrant was issued against him, but when a king's messenger from London and a resident Sheriff's officer called in the Hartshead to execute it, Mr. Gales was not to be found. The story was that he escaped by a prompt flight, but the real fact was that he happened to be absent in Derby on family business.* In the following week's Register Mr. Gales took a formal leave of his friends and readers, denying most distincttly that ________ * Letter in Sheffield Independent, 0ct 7, 1848; also, " Memoirs of Montgomery," Vol I., p. 171 ________ he had written, dicttated, or been privy to the letter addressed to Hardy. If, he said, his imprisonment or death would serve the cause which he had espoused‹the cause of peace, liberty, and justice, it would be cowardice to fly; " but, convinced that by ruining my family and distressing my friends by risking either, would only gratify the ignorant and malignant, I shall seek that livelihood in another land which I cannot peaceably gain in this." With some difficulty, and after sundry conceal- ments, he got to Germany, and thence to Philadelphia, where he began life afresh as a printer and journalist. There, and in Raleigh, he had a long and honourable career. His sons, also, became prominent men in the newspaper world. Mr. Gales died, at the advanced age of eighty years, in I84I.* Like Mr. Gales, his former partner, Mr. David Martin, also sought a new home in America‹though presumably from choice rather than compulsion. But his career there was unhappy, and before many years had passed, he took his own life in a fit of insanity. To him we owe not only the copper- plate title-page to the Directory of I787, and a view of the frontage to the old Shambles, but also a series of six engravings, now rare and much valued by local collectors, and instructive as showing the aspect of the Town towards the end of the eighteenth century. When Martin left the town he was engaged in the publication of "Flora Britannica," of which about tenty numbers had appeared. While Joseph Gales was still conducting the Sheffield Register, an advertisement for a clerk brought a visit from a mild-mannered youth of twenty. He gave his name as James Montgomery, and explained that, on leaving the Moravian school at Fulneck, his literary aspirations had met with so little encouragement by his friends that he had been placed in a draper's shop at Mirfield. He ran away from this, engaged himself to Mr. Hunt, grocer, of Wath, and, after an interval in London, spent in a vain endeavour to obtain a footing in the ____________ * Fuller particulars of the Gales family are given in ~ Reminiscences of Old Sheffield," 2nd edition, pp 12-l5, 315-17 See also ~ Local Notes and Queries," June 8, 1874, and the Sheffield Independent, May 12, l880. _________________ world of literature, and in trying to commend his writings to unsympathetic publishers, he had returned to Wath. But he had a soul above groceries, and pined for printers' ink. So Mr. Gales engaged him. He quickly obtained the complete confidence of his employer, and found, in the columns of the Rcgister, a convenient vehicle in which to give his effusions to the world. He was treated more as a member of the Gales' family than as an outsider, and thus it came to pass that when on Gales's flight, the Sheffield Register issued its last number, Friday, the 27th of June, I794, on Friday, July 4th, there was issued from the same office, printed with the same type, and by the same staff, the Sheffield Iris, published by "J. Mont- gomery and Co." The " Co." meant the Rev. Benjamin Naylor, one of the ministers of the Upper Chapel, and it was arranged that, while Montgomery conducted the newspaper, Ann and Elizabeth Gales, sisters of Mr. Gales, should continue to carry on the shop as booksellers and stationers. " With these sisters," and another, Sarah, as the inscription on the Gales' tombstone in Eckington Churchyard records, the poet lived, ~together and severally, for more than sixty years (dying in the presence of the last-named, at Sheffield, April 30, I854)." Whatever love-romance there may have been in Montgomery's life has never been revealed. His early letters indicate the sentimentality and sensitiveness usual in youths of morbid cast, and he indulged at times in verses of a more or less ama- tory strain. There is a letter of his, dated June, I840, to Miss Sarah Gales, at that time the only survivor of the triple sister- hood (Elizabeth had died in I82I, and Ann in I838), describing how he passed, on the newly-opened railway, through the familiar scenes of Eckington. The railway, he said, " cuts Renishaw Park at the lower part, near the place where we used to go to sit in a grove and a hermitage in the years of romance when‹you know when." But whatever love- passages there may have been, the relations of Montgomery to the Misses Gales remained to the end those of brother and sisters. The new journalistic venture was started warily. Its conductors incurred the scorn of fiery patriots, who had been more ready to pass resolutions to defend incriminated printers and authors than to carry them into effect, by adopting as their motto. Ours are the plans of fair delightful peace, Unwarped by party rage, to live like brothers " It is not their intention," they said in the opening declaration from the pen of Mr. Naylor, " to enter themselves in the field of political controversy. For though they shall think it their duty to state the reasonings on both sides, upon public and interesting questions, they do not conceive it to be at all the proper business of the editor of a newspaper to present his readers with his own particular opinions." Montgomery's own gentle and non-combative nature had more in common with the timid counsels of Naylor than with the militant spirit of Gales, and the young journalist was a model of discretion. The authorities, however, furious at Gales having escaped their clutches, were not to be hood- winked by a mere change in the name of the newspaper, or by protestations of " firm attachment to the constitution " by those who admitted themselves to be "friends to the cause of peace," and to that hated thing ~'reform." When the wolf means to quarrel with the lamb any excuse suffices, and his opportunity soon came through no fault of Montgomery's. The foreman of the printing-office accepted, in the ordinary course of business, an order from a travelling song-vendor to reprint copies of a song written in I792, and set up in the time of Mr. Gales, with reference to the then impending invasion of France by the Prussians and Austrians. This was enough for men who had been " reading the Iris six times in one day to find a libel, if possible, in it." What might be harmless in 1792 was, they held, libellous and seditious in I794, and Montgomery was accordingly haled off to Doncaster Sessions, and sentenced to pay a fine of £20. And suffer imprisonment for three months in York Castle. This was in January, I795. But the vengeance of the authorities was not yet satiated, and Montgomery had only been out of prison for some six months, when, in August, he was in trouble again, , for a description in the lris of a riot in Norfolk Street. in which the Volunteers, under Colonel Athorpe, killed two men and severely wounded others. The Iris's account of the riot was as milk and water compared with the fiery song in which Mather, who seems to have been an eye-witness of the affair, outspokenly denounced the authorities as guilty of murder. The euphemistic phrase of the Iris‹" a person who shall be nameless," pales its ineffectual fire beside Mather's vituperative epithets; but Montgomery and his journal were worth powder and shot, while Mather was not‹ nor were the sins of Joseph Gales imputed to him. So the luckless poet was sent back to York Castle for a further period of six months, with a fine of £30; while Mather continued with impunity to entertain the frequenters of public-houses by singing of the " arm'd assassins, dressed in blue, who wantonly their townsmen slew, and murder did contrive." The severities of the Govermnent were, of course, futile. They could not stay free speech, much less could they suppress discontent. In August, I795, the people, on the invitation of the Constitutional Society, assembled upon Crookes Moor, near Mushroom Hall, to the numher of ten thousand. Citizen Larrou, of London, was present, and he was followed " by an excellent orator" whose name is prudently suppressed. " The numbers who flocked from all parts of the country upon this glorious occasion is almost incredible. The enemies of liberty and the supporters of the war ' slunk scowling back ' into their dens of ignorance and superstition, shocked to see such a number of men who disapproved of the injustice done to mankind in general by the unexampled conduct of an Apostate minister. " * When, on the day appointed for a national thanksgiving (December 19, 1797) for threefold naval victories over the French, Spanish, and Dutch, the townspeople flocked to the service at the New Church (St. Paul's), they found themselves confronted by this inscription on the doors: Vile hypocrites, are these your pranks, To murder men, then give God thanks ? Vile hypocrites, proceed no further; God will accept no thanks for murder After the fast day the eccentric William Broomhead, who, after his arrest in I794, had been discharged on entering into _______ * " Proceedings at Public Meeting," &c British Museum, 8135aa. _______ recognisances to give evidence against Redhead Yorke, stood in the middle of the street and, taking off his hat, proclaimed in a loud voice: The fast day is over; we need to pray no more, For we've renewed our licence to rob and starve the poor. Then, covering again, he walked to a short distance, and went through the same performance, and so on through all the principal streets. Montgomery dolorously remarked long afterwards: " I lost I,000 subscribers the first year, for I was too moderate for the Jacobins, and yet with the aristocratic party I was reckoned a Jacobin. The one party deserted me, the other persecuted me, but I lived through it all, and I was afterwards much more supported by the aristocratic party than by the democratic." A further source of great pecuniary anxiety to him was the withdrawal of his partner in consequence of these troubles. Mr. Naylor did not relish the responsibilities of connection with such " gunpowder property" as newspapers then were. Montgomery agreed to buy him out, giving a bond for the payment by instalments of £I670‹a sum which is a some- what surprising revelation as to the value of such a journal, surrounded by perils that might snuff it out at any moment. The expenses of his defence had been heavy, " although the liberality of his friends had been as great as it had been un- expected and unmerited." But in course of time he discharged every penny of his obligation to Mr. Naylor, though " nobody," he said, "knows but myself the difficulties through which I paid off that money." Years later, Montgomery had light thrown upon his first prosecution in a somewhat curious manner. Mr. John Brookfield, the attorney charged with Montgomery's first prosecution, when removing his offices from Campo Lane, left behind a quantity of lumber and waste-paper. Amongst this there were found by the tenant who succeeded him (Mr. John Innocent, bookseller and stationer) the briefs in the Montgomery case. They were to be given to counsel "with the Attorney General's compliments," and on them it was recorded that " this prosecution is carried on chiefly with a view to put a stop to the Associated Clubs in Sheffield; and it is to be hoped, if we are fortunate enough to succeed in convicting the prisoner, it will go a great way towards curbing the insolence they have uniformly manifested." And while this was the avowed motive of the first prosecution, in the second the hostile attorney stooped to the device of supplying malignant paragraphs, grossly prejudicing the defendant's case while yet awaiting the trial, to Montgomery's rival, the Courant, whose conductor, Northall, with equal defiance of professional de- cency, greedily published them. In I805 Montgomery narrowly escaped a third prosecution, " aimed with a cordiality that meant no repetition of the stroke." This was to be based upon his strictures on the campaign in Germany, when General Mack and 30,000 Austrians laid down their arms. Formal notices were actually served upon him, but they were not followed up, as the poet- editor conjectured because in the next Iris he spoke of the death of Nelson in a strain of such patriotism that his former disloyalty was perhaps overlooked.* It has been stated in a former Chapter (page I76) that the house in the Hartshead was, before Mr. Gales's time, the residence of Dr. Buchan, of " Domestic Medicine " fame. There survive illustrations of the building in its last days. These show that at some period there had been not un- successful efforts to give its entrance an imposing appearance _____________ * The particulars given above are not taken from the voluminous memoir of Montgomery by Holland and Everitt, but from sources to some of which, at least, they had not access; particularly from letters by Montgomery, published in the Sheffield Times and lris, August 2, 1873, and subsequent weeks, and from a sketch of Mr Montgomery's life published on his death in 1854 in the Sheffield lndependent and written by the late Mr Robert Leader, who was sent to the Iris Office to be apprenticed, in the last years of the poet's proprietorship Though serving under Mr. Montgomery for some time, Mr Leader was actually apprenticed to his successor, Mr Blackwell and he was released from his indentures before they expired that he might join his father, who had purchased the Sheffield Independent (1829) Another apprentice of Montgomery's was Matthewman Smith, elder brother of Mr Albert Smith, for many years Clerk to the Magistrates. Mr Matthewman Smith entered the East India Company's Army, and died in India ___________ ******************************************************************* Two pages (viz 300 and 301) missing here ******************************************************************* in the night, when Mr. Thomas Oates, the landlord, his wife, and their children and servants were in bed. Mrs. Oates and an apprentice perished, but the other occupants escaped, and the sons lived to be useful citizens. George Thorndell kept an eating-house and poulterer's shop in the Hartshead certainly as early as I787, and he was sufficiently prosperous to be able to live in the suburb of Harvest Lane. Sheffielders have ever been prone to scoff at airs of superiority or indications of vaulting ambition, and a favourite form of this has been the bestowal of satiric names. Thus we have " Hodgson's Folly," and when a certain Mr. John North, a maker of cast-metal scissors or forks, built the house still standing on Western Bank, below Clarkson Street, it was promptly nick-named, by the envious, " Sowmetal Hall"; while his workmen indicated their view that the wherewithal to build it had come out of their low wages, by dubbing it "Stint Hall." So Thorndell's country residence was popularly known as " T' Hen Hole "‹as implying that the Hartshead cookshop was supplied with poultry requisi- tioned from neighbouring roosts, and surreptitiously pushed into the Harvest Lane cellar by night. Thorndell had the competition of a rival, Benjamin Hemmingway, in Campo Lane, and, in I804 or I805, of Matthias D'Amour, a native of Antwerp, in the Hartshead. The his- tory of D'Amour's life was put into shape for him by Mr. Paul Rodgers. After being confidential servant to various gentle- men and valet to the Duchess of Gordon, D'Amour, whose wife was a native of Woodhall, near Shemeld, set up a canal boat, and conveyed coal from Whittington and Norwood Col- lieries to Retford; but after a time he sold his boat and hegan his cook-shop at 4, Market Street, " on the very last day of the eighteenth century." He did well there, and removed in four years to the Hartshead, where he remained until I826. He lived to the great age of 93, not dying until I842. Mr. Thomas Pearson was a well-known wine and spirit merchant, who long carried on a profitable business at the bottom of the Hartshead, his extensive cellars being part of the premises occupied by Messrs. J. S. and T. Birks, grocers, in recent times. But the best known name in this trade, in connection with this neighbourhood, is that of Watson. There were two families of Watson here‹Watson, Pass, and Co., silver-platers, and the Watsons, victuallers through several generations‹but the latter were by far the earlier on the spot, and it was from them that the walk took its name.* Richard Keats's eating house at the bottom of Watson's Walk was a well established business for many years. It is one of the few places with that address given in the Directory of I797. John Woodward, victualler, was at No. I, and Richard Keats at No. 2. Another well-known but somewhat later public-house was " T' oil i' t' Wall " (The Hole in the Wall), more correctly called " The Shades," with entrances from both Watson's Walk and Hartshead. It was kept by Mr. Sam Turner, familiarly called " Gin Sam," to distinguish him from " Flannel Sam," his namesake, the draper, in Angel Street. Originally a carpet weaver, he took advantage of the enforced idleness consequent on a broken arm to marry a widow who had a public-house at the corner of Waingate and Castle Street. When ejected thence, to make way for the Town Hall (now Court House) of I805, they migrated to Watson's Walk and prospered greatly, for Turner was a model boniface. One story connected with the taverns hereabouts has al- ready been told as illustrative of Vicar Wilkinson's pugilistic skill. There is another, with also a clerical flavour, possibly attaching to the Watson's inn, but at all events showing that the public houses in this neighbourhood once attracted superior guests. The Archbishop of York had appointed a confirmation to be held in the Parish Church. A respectable working man named Thomas Dunn, who brought his son William from Malin Bridge to receive the rite, arrived too late, and found the ceremony over and the church shut. Nothing daunted, he tracked the Archbishop to a tavern in Watson's Walk, and obtained an interview. With great good humour, the prelate interrupted his dinner, and, having put the boy through the necessary questions, confirmed him on the _________ * See Ante, p. 283. __________ stair-head of the public-house. The father, Thomas Dunn, had come to the town from Boston, in the year I730, to be apprenticed to an ancestor of Colonel Fenton. His Malin Bridge house, a neat, substantial structure, with a pointed gable, and covered with a fruit tree, was swept away by the flood of I864. The boy thus strangely confirmed, through marrying a wife of strong Nonconformist views (she was a Holland, of Shiregreen), became the father of a stout dissenter and regular worshipper at Queen Street Chapel‹Thomas Dunn. The Shiregreen girl who became Mrs. William Dunn was, in her infancy, the heroine of an adventure connected with the stirring days of the '45. The southward march of the Young Pretender in that year filled the inhabitants of the country through which the Highlanders were expected to pass with dire alarm. Quotations have more than once been made in this book from a series of graphic and spirited letters written by the Rev. William Guest to Mr. Joshua Matthewlllan, of the Townhead Cross.* We would give a great deal for the letters of Mr. Matthewman in reply, for it is evident that they contained references to occurrences here, and to persons and events, which, though often trivial, afforded amusement to his distant townsman; "for," said the latter," things coming from one's native place bring into memory some old acquaintances or some former passage of life by which a man seems to be on the spot and acting his part over again." And not less enter- taining to us would be these voices, reaching us down the cen- turies. But, failing them, we must make the best of Mr. Guest's share in the correspondence. The Highlanders' invasion was naturally a topic of engrossing interest to the correspondents. We gather that some worthy citizens here fled from their houses. Mr. Guest congratulates Mr. Matthewman on having stayed at home, courageously refusing to follow the example of " those doughty heroes, J. B. and T. W." and he writes: " I don't know what spirits you might be in at Sheffield, but the inhabitants of Stamford had great occasion for smelling bottles, being almost ready to die in their shoes. They spent the greatest part of the week in removing their effects and ________ * Ante pp 65, 90, 280. _________ families, and expressed so much fear in every kind that one would have sworn it was a certain point with them that the Pretender's main business was to rip open their wives, and, like some idolaters of old, to have offered up their sons and daughters to devils. But though we had terrible appre- hensions of their coming forward, we are now not a little angry they got back again . . . General Wade's conduct puts me in mind of the King of France who marched up to the top of a hill with a hundred thousand men, and then marched down again." The apprehensions of the Stamford people were shared by the inhabitants of Shiregreen, and such credence was given to stories how the bare-legged rebels were, on their march impaling all babies on their swords, and twisting them round as a terror to the Hanoverians, that the little Holland girl, afterwards Mrs. William Dunn, was hidden in a hollow tree, where she remained until news was brought that the wild Highlanders had gone by. They had not left piles of slaughtered babies on their course, but that they were not pleasant guests is evident from the letter of a Derby gentle- man who, having six officers and forty privates quartered upon him, describes them as looking like so many fiends turned out of hell. They made free with his house and his posses- sions, the officers taking his own apartments, while the men had a fire lighted in the hall, and lay on straw. " After they began to be warm they stank so of the itch and other nastiness about them as if they had been so many persons in a con- demned hole, and 'twill be well if they have left no contagion behind them." Mr. Guest had a great fright concerning his Sheffield friends, for going to the Post Office with a letter for Mr. Matthewman, he thought well to withhold it, since he found it currently reported that the Rebels were actually in Sheffield, and " having expressed myself with some bitterness in relation to those miscreants," he feared lest, by falling into their hands, the letter ~should have provoked them to use you unfavourably." Which is not improbable seeing that this was the language he used: " I have thought of this Pretender and his crew till I have no patience left, and was I in good health, I believe I should go for a soldier myself. When I represent to myself thls Popish Brat, marching through the Kingdom with his train of Ruffians, besides which would immediately follow the fat- tun-bellied abbots, leacherous fryers, and idle lubberly priests invading our properties, and lording it over our consclences, I am staring mad." Another local tradition concerning the incursion of the Highlanders is also connected with the Dunns, and with another family well known in Watson's Walk‹Alfred and Frederick Smith, those quaint custodians of the Mechanics' Library. The Smiths were sons of a well-known and much respected currier in Figtree Lane, and their grandmother was one of the Heatons who, at the time of the Young Pretender's invasion, lived at the Pickle‹by which name the district be- yond the Wicker, from the first Midland Railway Station to the Twelve o'Clock was known. This Pickle House belonged originally to Francis Morton, uncle of the William Dunn of the confirmation story. Hither, according to a family tradition, handed down to the Smiths by their mother, from her mother, and in whose truth they tenaciously believed, came Prince Charles Edward, and stayed with their great-grandfather. The story was that when their grandmother was young, she became conscious of some extra bustle in the house. Rambling about, she pushed open the door of an upstairs room and discovered a number of gentlemen, some sitting and some standing, looking out of the window towards the Park hill. She was hurried away, and, with many injunctions to secrecy, was for some days restricted in her movements, and was kept from her usual walks and from her customary association with other children. In after years it was matter of common notoriety in the family that the gentlemen thus disturbed were Prince Charles Edward and some of his adherents, who had made the house of Mr. Heaton, a stout upholder of the Stuart cause, a sort of rendezvous, where they could plot with sympathisers in the neighbourhood, and whence the Prince could go to and fro, visiting other districts._ Sense Heaton, the girl who thus got a glimpse of the makings of history, afterwards became Mrs. Benjamin Cadman, of Spinkhill Manor, and so an ances- tress of the Cadmans of Westbourne; and not only has her story been ever since treasured as one of the prized possessions of the Cadmans and the Smiths, but there have been preserved as heirlooms in the families of Mrs. Cadman's descendants a number of articles either given as presents by the Young Pre- tender on his departure, or left behind by his party, or conse- crated in the eyes of his devoted adherents by having been used by him while at Pickle House. These include a sword with ivory handle; a high wine glass, on which is engraved a bust of the prince; a harpsicord; a portrait of Charles I.- a view of Park Hill, as seen from Pickle House, taken by one of the party at the request of the prince; and the doors of a cup- board on which the same friend painted portraits. Even the oak table at which the prince sat, and the vessels he used at his meals, are reverently treasured. Outside the families con- cerned, the story has ever been received with much incredulity It has been especially remarked, with sceptical preciseness that these events are said to have happened in I744, and Prince Charles Edward did not land in Scotland until July I745 But it must be admitted that what is known of the prince's movements in I744 renders it by no means impossible that he may have made a surreptitious visit to England. In that year he was living incognito as " the Chevalier Douglas," " in the strictest privacy," chiefly at Gravelines, within sight of the English coast; and he wrote to his father: " Nobody knows where I am, or what is become of me, so that I am entirely buried as to the public." And again: " Everybody is wondering where the prince is; some put him in one place and some in another, and nobody knows where he is really and sometimes he is told news of himself, to his face, which is very diverting." So the firm belief of Sense Heaton's des- cendants in the Pickle House tradition may, after all, be right.

******************************************************************************** * This out of copyright material has been transcribed by Eric Youle, who has * * provided the transcription on condition that any further copying and * * distribution of the transcription is allowed only for noncommercial * * purposes, and includes this statement in its entirety. Any references to, * * or quotations from, this material should give credit to the original * * author(s) or editors. * ********************************************************************************

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